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Managing
Botulism

Protection
Losses
Beef

Botulism

Botulism is a paralysing disease of cattle. It is a severe and fatal disease caused by a potent nerve toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.

• Type C and D botulinum are the most common cause of botulism in Australia. In severe cases cattle can die in less than 24 hours without signs of illness

• In northern Australia cattle chew on carcasses and bones – this is the principle source of botulism toxin.  Botulinum outbreaks have caused losses of up to 25% of the herd on some properties and may significantly increase the herd death rate by up to 10-20% annually1

• Most cases of botulism are never observed – cattle simply go missing

Botulism

• A severe, often fatal, clostridial disease with no specific treatment

• Prominent in cattle grazing on land deficient in protein and phosporous

• Commonly associated with bone chewing by susceptible, unvaccinated cattle

Protect your greatest assets with trusted annual vaccination

Vaccination with Longrange provides

1. Trusted and proven reliability through annual vaccination

Protects animals that have not been mustered the previous year. In large scale operations a complete muster is almost impossible to achieve, leaving 5-20%2 of the herd unvaccinated and at risk of botulism
Boosts immunity
Boosts maternal antibodies of breeders and protects calves

Is cost-effective by only vaccinating cattle that you are intending to keep
Takes the confusion out of botulism record keeping management

2. Reduced deaths over 3 years

In an MLA funded field trial, annual vaccination of a group of 1,525 replacement heifers with Longrange reduced mortality by 7% over a 3 year period (Table 1).3

Table 1. Benefits of vaccination with Longrange on mortality over a 3 year period

Treatment Initial Cattle Number Rate of Deaths*
Not Vaccinated - Control Group 486 14%
Vaccinated - with Longrange 1,039 7%
Total Cattle 1,525
*Heifers were deemed to have died if they missed 3 or more musters

Table 2. Calculated return from botulism vaccination over a 3 year period†

Treatment Initial Cattle Number Mortalities (Missing cattle) Value of dead cattle at $700/head Cost of vaccination over 3 years at $1.50/head/year Cost Benefit Ratio
Not Vaccinated 1,500 14% 210 $147,000 $0
Vaccinated - with Longrange 1,500 7% 105 $73,500 $6,750 10.89
Longrange Vaccination - Value of Reduced Cattle Losses

$73,500 - $6,750 = $66,750

This indicates a cost benefit ratio of 10.89, representing a benefit of $10.89 for each $1 spent on vaccination

*Heifers were deemed to have died if they missed 3 or more musters

Study_Conclusion_statement

3. Fastest level of protection

Longrange provides the fastest protection levels, with a rapid onset of immunity within 28 days. A single dose of Longrange provides immunity persisting at protective levels for at least 12 months after administration4

4. Fifty (50) times the protection level

Longrange provides potent enduring protection. A single booster dose annually provides up to 50 times the necessary level of protection against type C and D botulism4.

4. Less carcase trim and site reactions

Longrange has a unique water based formulation developed to provide optimal protective immunity against botulism after a single dose, while minimising the risk of injection site blemishes and carcase trim. Alternative vaccines for botulism use an oil based formulation that increases the risk of site reactions, lumps and carcase trim. A study identified that cattle vaccinated with SingVac® had over 3 times as many large vaccination site reactions as cattle vaccinated with Longrange5.

6. Simple dosing program

The unique formulation is easy to administer with no need for special applicators and provides better safety for workers

7. Efficient integration into your management program to optimise beef production

For optimised reproductive performance use Longrange annually in combination with Vibrovax® to prevent transmission of vibriosis, Pestigard® to reduce reproductive losses due to pestivirus and Ultravac® 7in1 to prevent shedding of leptospires and protect against key clostridial diseases.

LONGRANGE – BEST SCIENCE, BEST FOR BEEF

Key Benefits Longrange® SingVac®
LATEST SCIENCE – THE LATEST FORMULATION
Demonstrated to reduce death due to botulism using field trial data – effectiveness based on Australian field trial data3
Not demonstrated to reduce death due to botulism using field trial data – effectiveness only demonstrated by experimental challenge in selected animals and antibody titres (SingVac 1 year/3 year challenge 2001)6
High level of immunity – provides up to fifty (50) times the necessary protection levels using an assay documented to be associated with protection against botulism4
Level of immunity determined with an assay not validated for association with protection against botulism7-9
LESS SITE REACTIONS
Unique water based formulation – less risk of site reactions, injection lumps and carcase trim
Oil based vaccine – increases the risk of site reactions and carcase trim
Easy application
Over 3 times as many large site reactions5
FASTEST PROTECTION
Fastest protection – within 28 days4
35 day - onset of immunity claim
OPTIMAL IMMUNITY
Annual booster doses ensure optimal immunity is achieved
3 year muster programs can miss animals – no vaccination means no protection

The optimum botulism vaccination program for northern herds:


Botulism Vaccination Weaners Breeders (including Bulls)
Longrange® One shot at first muster 1st dose for previously unvaccinated cattle Annual booster every year
Ultravac® Botulinum Alternative annual booster to Longrange
Botulism vaccination may be integrated into your annual vaccination program.

Keeping herds on track for a more profitable future

For more information talk to your Zoetis Cattle Product Representative, call 1800 963 847 or visit www.zoetis.com.au.

Zoetis_Vaccine_Group_Packshots

References

  1. Fitzpatrick S. Agnote K29. Botulism Poisoning in Cattle in the Northern Territory, September 2006. 
  2. McCosker T.H, and Eggington A.R Cattle Mustering Efficiency Using Helicopters in a Monsoonal Savanna Woodland. Aust Ranger J. 1986: 8(2): 91-96. 
  3. Smith PC et al, Industry initiatives to improve young breeder performance in the Pilbara and Kimberley of W.A, NBP.345, Meat and Livestock Australia,North Sydney, 2010, 28-29. 
  4. Zoetis Data on File. 
  5. Zoetis Data on File. 
  6. Lehrbach PR and Robinson SR, Comparative immunogenicity of single doses of four vaccines against botulism in cattle AVA Proceedings Pg 145-148 (2001). 
  7. Jansen et al., Onderstepoort J. vet Res. 43 (4), 165-174 (1976).
  8. Cameron et al., ClostPath: Rio Rica, Arizona, USA - January 11-14, 1995. 
  9. Elhay M. Zoetis Data on File. Aug 2003.
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