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Reproductive Diseases


Cattle Best Practice Vaccination and Drenching Instructional Videos


Your herd, your financial investment and your livelihood could suffer significantly if diseases or parasites impact your herd. Disease prevention through annual vaccination is the key to stopping the spread of disease in your herd and reducing the potentially devastating impact of disease.

Annual vaccinations, parasite management and preventative programs maximise the health of your herd and your business.

The Zoetis vaccine and herd health ranges insure your herd and your enterprise against the economic impact of disease.

Impacts Cattle

Leptospirosis is a bacterium that infects both cattle and humans, affecting beef and dairy cattle.
It is spread via the urine and reproductive discharges of farm animals, wild-life, pigs and rats.
Leptospirosis can live in the environment for months, especially in stagnant water.
The disease infects cows and humans through contact with nose, eyes, mouth or broken skin.
Leptospirosis can affect the reproductive health of a heifer or cow by causing stillbirths, abortions and the birth of weak calves.

Impacts Humans

Leptospirosis can be spread from cows to humans, causing severe flu-like symptoms which may persist for weeks to months.
Leptospirosis is an occupational hazard for all people who work with cattle. Workplace Health and Safety (WH&S) regulations require that farmers provide a safe environment for their employees.

Cattle 5ml Selectable SafeShot Vaccinator Instructional Video


Ultravac®7in1 prevents leptospirosis and protects against the key clostridial diseases.


Only Ultravac 7in1 (2.5mL dose)

Stops the spread of leptospirosis - by preventing urinary shedding of leptospires when used prior to nature exposure
Protects you, your family, your workers and your herd
Keeps the unborn calf safe and sound from leptospirosis - through preventing urinary tract colonisation and placental and foetal infection
Can be used in calves from 4 weeks to provide early age protection

Protects against clostridial diseases:



Pulpy Kidney

Black Disease

Malignant Oedema
Ultravac 7in1 vaccine Other 7in1 vaccines
Prevents shedding in urine and from the reproductive tract when used prior to natural exposure No Claim
Prevents reproductive tract colonisation* No Claim
Prevents placental and foetal infection* No Claim
Calves can be vaccinated from 4 weeks* 4-6 months
Low volume 2.5 mL dose 4 mL
Can be used for up to 30 days after opening** 24 hours

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims


The economic impact of clostridial diseases can be devastating. During outbreaks the losses can be dramatic and extensive.  Five common clostridial diseases can cause a heavy toll on your herd. Rapid death is the primary sign of clostridial diseases.

Clostridial disease What is it? How is it spread? What are the symptoms?
Clostridum chauvoel
Typically affects young, well grown cattle from 3 months to 2 years old. Bacteria are ingested from the pasture. Bruising stimulates growth of the organism and toxin production in muscle. Severe muscle damage, with inflammation, pain and gas accumulation in the tissues. Fever, weakness and death results.
Clostridium tetani
Tetanus organisums which produce a fatal toxin are found in soil and manure on most farms. Tetanus bacteria grow in wounds from: castration (including rings and banding), dehorning, nail punctures and calving trauma. Tetanus affects the nervous system. Stiffness and muscle spasms can be seen. The animal eventually collapses and respiratory failure leads to death.
Enterotoxemaia (Pulpy Kidney)
Clostridium perfringens type D
This bacterium normally exists in small numbers in the gut of heathly animals. Distrupted digestions, e.g. changing feed type to hig carbohydrate diet allows bacteria to multiply rapidly and produce toxin. Diarrhoea, bellowing, mania or dullness, blindness, convulsions and sudden death of animals otherwise considered to be in good condition.
Black Disease
Clostridium novyl
Grows and produces lethal toxins in damaged liver tissue. Damage to the liver by migrating liver fluke is the most common trigger for the disease. Livestock are often found dead with no evidence of clinical signs. In some cattle, lethargy and loss of appetite can be seen. Death occurs within 48 hours.
Mallgnant Oedema
Clostridium septicum
Organism are common in the soil on many farms. Bacteria from soil enter wounds including the navel of calves and produce fatal toxin. Swelling, inflammation and accumulation of gases. Gangrene occures as blood supply is compromised. Response to treatment is poor and death typically occurs within 24 hours.



Prevents the five common clostridial diseases in Australia
Utilises an Ultrafiltration process to create a lower volume vaccine that is less likely to produce lumps, is easily handled
Is easily recognised by the immune system to ensure rapid and effective protection
Safe for use at all stages of pregnancy
Calves can be vaccinated from 6 weeks
30 day broaching claim

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims


Pestivirus, also known as Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), is a highly contagious virus present in herds across Australia. In fact, up to 90% of herds have evidence of past exposure to pestivirus1-3.

The costs and impact can be very significant:

MLA’s 2015 Report ranks pestivirus as the disease with the second biggest cost to the Australian beef cattle industry, costing $114 million annually10
Overall total production can be reduced by 25-50% in recently infected mobs or herds
Ongoing losses of 5-10% annually can occur where pestivirus persists6-9
Research from the 'CashCow Project'* has revealed that Australian cattle producers could face up to 50 per cent less cows becoming pregnant within four months of breeding, if their herd is infected with pestivirus during the mating period

In fact, CashCow also found that cattle herds with widespread infection rates of pestivirus have nearly twice as many losses between pregnancy testing and weaning, compared to those with little or no infection.  Pestivirus, also known as bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), is transmitted by contact with persistently infected cattle and is widespread across beef cattle regions of Queensland, the Northern Territory and the Kimberley, with nine out of ten mobs having evidence of past infection.1,2,3  Lead researcher of the 'CashCow Project', Professor Mike McGowan from the University of Queensland, said pestivirus was a "sneaky infection that we have long known to be capable of causing big losses. Our research found that heifer mobs are most at risk, with up to forty per cent having little or no immunity to pestivirus.  This means they are at serious risk of an outbreak of pestivirus if a 'persistently infected' carrier animal is inadvertently introduced into the mob during joining."

Following landmark CashCow research, beef cattle producers are being urged to implement an effective management plan to protect their breeding mobs from pestivirus.  The Zoetis Pestigard vaccination is a crucial part of an effective control program.

"Pestivirus is a manageable disease and vaccinating heifer mobs to prevent an outbreak makes a lot of sense.  Heifers are the future of your herd and you want to get them off to a good start," Professor McGown said.

Heifers vaccinated with Pestigard benefit from a significant boost to their immunity when subsequently natuarlly exposed to pestivirus.1,2

Pestivirus can enter a herd in many ways:

Once in the herd it can easily spread and has four (4) potential effects on the herd…

Entry of the virus can occur via:

  • ‘In, Out, and Over’
    • In – Cattle coming on to the property, including their foetuses. People coming on the farm, as well as their instruments and vehicles
    • Out - Cattle going off the property and returning pregnant at a later date. Or pregnant cattle going out and returning
    • Over (the fence) – contact with a neighbour’s cattle
  • Four (4) potential effects of the virus on the herd:
    • Early embryonic death and abortions
    • Production of PI calves – which carry and spread the virus for life before die
    • Delivery of unviable or abnormal calves at full term
    • Immune suppression increasing the risk of secondary infections
  • Pestivirus is often a component of other  common cattle disease problems (e.g. calf scours and pneumonia) as it can affect the immune system of infected animals
  • The disease is spread mainly by persistently infected cattle coming into close contact with susceptible cattle.



  • Only Pestigard is registered in Australia to prevent pestivirus. There are no other registered vaccines
  • Pestigard prevents nasal shedding of pestivirus to safeguard your heifers and cows reproductive potential
  • The time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose should not be less than 4 weeks. However the time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose can be extended to 6 months to enable the dosing to easily fit in with farm practices. 
Only Pestigard is registered in Australia to prevent pestivirus. There are no other registered vaccines
Pestigard prevents nasal shedding of pestivirus to safeguard your heifers and cows reproductive potential
The time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose should not be less than 4 weeks. However the time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose can be extended to 6 months to enable the dosing to easily fit in with farm practices.

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims


Vibriosis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterial infection. Bulls are responsible for the introduction and spread of bacteria in a herd, and infected bulls will not show any visible signs
Vibriosis is still a common infection in Australian beef and dairy herds and when introduced to a herd, the disease spreads rapidly as cows and heifers in such herds have no immunity
The disease is a major cause of infertility and abortion in cattle, and is easily prevented through vaccination of bulls.


Calf losses were 7% higher in mobs of heifers or cows with evidence of widespread infection with vibriosis during mating in the CashCow project2
Up to 90% of northern herds may be infected with vibriosis while a recent survey of beef herds in southern NSW showed 9% were positive to vibriosis4
Vibriosis can result in permanent infertility in up to 11% of infected heifers5



  • Only Vibrovax® is registered in Australia to prevent vibriosis in cattle. There are no other registered vaccines
  • Prevents transmission of vibriosis to safeguard your heifers’ and cows’ reproductive potential.

Vaccinating bulls annually with Vibrovax prevents vibriosis from spreading.


When bull control is problematic, heifer vaccination may be required. Vaccinating heifers in a large northern beef herd demonstrated that vaccinating heifers against vibriosis significantly improved (+11%) first round pregnancy rates.3

Protect your maiden heifers (over 18 months of age)

One Shot = 2 Years Protection...this covers the main period of risk

  • Significantly increase economic returns3
  • Obtain more calves at the right time
  • Increase the number of calves weaned first round

Annual Vaccination Program


Heifers Cows
6-8weeks pre-joining 2-4 weeks pre-joining 2-4 weeks pre-joining

ˆ In heifers and cows over 18 months of age, only one dose of 5mL is necessary for the primary course. In younger animals it is recommended to give two doses of 5mL, at the intervals shown above.


Significantly reduces the spread of vibriosis between infected females
May increases pregnancy rates and/or
Improve calving patterns resulting in less late calves in infected herds
Has no adverse impact on the testicular function and therefore semen morphology in vaccinated bulls6.

Vaccination of heifers and cows with Vibrovax may also be necessary to eradicate vibriosis from herds confirmed through testing to be infected.

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims


One Powerful Product. Two Unique Models.

Dectomax® is the high performance drench for Australia’s leading cattle producers. The two unique models of Dectomax® Injectable and Dectomax® Pour-On give you two powerful choices to control the parasites that count, including the five major worms, lice, cattle tick and buffalo fly.^ Both Dectomax® Injectable and Pour-on have their unique benefits, but it’s the active doramectin that makes the difference. Its broad-spectrum efficacy and persistent days of activity against the key internal parasites provides protection for your cattle, which means fewer treatments, reduced pasture contamination and an improvement to your bottom line.

Dectomax® Injectable gets to the sites where it’s needed most in the highest concentrations.

It’s the active doramectin that makes the difference with Dectomax
Doramectin concentrates at high levels in areas where parasites can infect and cause damage in your cattle
The figure to the right compares Dectomax to other key drenches when given by injectio
Dectomax achieves higher concentrations at key sites than Ivomec and Cydectin 1% injections
The persistent activity of Dectomax means reliable worm control.

Dectomax has no adverse impact on dung beetle populations

The APVMA has concluded that there’s no evidence that any of the ‘mectin’ group of drenches has a long-term detrimental effect on dung beetle populations or dung disappearance rates in the field if used appropriately under Australian conditions6.

To control the parasites that count, including the five major worms, lice, cattle tick and buffalo fly^, you need a drench like Dectomax and you also need to protect your dung beetle population. By using an effective drench, like Dectomax, and encouraging dung beetles to thrive, you’ll optimise your herd’s health, reduce pasture contamination and maximise weight gain. The APVMA has stated that Dectomax® has no adverse effect on dung beetle populations.1,2

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims


Dectomax Pour-On Applicator Instructional Video

Dectomax Injector Instructional Video


For further information please refer to the following literature:

“Hard Working Protection for Cattle”


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Zoetis Adverse Events (Sheep-Cattle)


1. Taylor LF, Hodge A, 2014. Descriptive findings from analysis of a large database of cattle worm egg count and larval culture results collected across Australia between 2002 and 2012. Vet. Parasitol. 204, 269–278.

2. Kloosterman et al., 1984. Negative interactions between Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves. Vet Parasitol. 15, 135–150.

3. Lanusse et al., 1997. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin in cattle. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 20, 91–99.

4. Lifschitz et al., 1999. Moxidectin in cattle: correlation between plasma and target tissues disposition. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 22, 266–273.

5. Lifschitz et al., 2000. Comparative distribution of ivermectin and doramectin to parasite location tissues in cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 87, 327–338.

6. NRA Special Review of Macrocyclic Lactones, May 1998.

^Buffalo fly claim for Dectomax® Pour-On only.

*Registered trademarks.

#Provides up to 14 days of persistent activity against Cooperia oncophora as per label claim.

§Provides up to 21 days of persistent activity against Cooperia oncophora as per label claim.

**Maximum number of days approved.

Pestigard References

1. St George TD, Snowdon WA, Parsonson IM, French EL. Aust Vet J. 1967;43:549-557.

2. Taylor LF, Black PF, Pitt DJ et al. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:163-168.

3. Taylor L. The Australian Cattle Veterinarian 2010:57:14-28.

4. Phil Holmes 2010. The Economic Impact of BVDV on a dairy herd. Zoetis data on file.

5. Modelling assumptions for estimated cost of pestivirus of $53/cow/year based on a milk price of $0.34. In an endemic herd with a viral strain causing reproductive losses and birth of persistently infected calves.

6. Taylor LF, Rodwell BJ. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:682-685.

7. Morton JM, Phillips NJ, Taylor LF, McGowan MR. Aust Vet J. 2013;91:517-524.

8. Parkinson TJ, Vermunt JJ, Malmo J, Anderson N. Diseases of Cattle in Australasia. Eds Parkinson TJ, Vermunt JJ, Malmo J, VetLearn, Wellington, 2010: 127-181.

9. McGowan MR et al., In: Proceedings Northern Beef Research Update Conference 2013, 61-66.

10. MLA Report B.AHE.0010, 2015.

11. McGowan M et al., 2008. Guidelines for investigation and control of BVDV, BVDV Technical Advisory Group, p13 – Zoetis data on file.

12. Zoetis study number 6931R-14-12-266

*These findings come from the ‘CashCow Project’, involving an alliance of university, government, and private research agencies, which studied the reproductive performance of more than 78,000 heifers and cows in Queensland, the Northern Territory and the Kimberley, in Western Australia

Vibrovax References

1. Jayawardhana G. Agnote No.K43. Vibriosis in the Northern Territory. February 2011.

2. Meat & Livestock Australia, Northern Australian beef fertility project: CashCow. August 2014.

3. Schatz TJ, Colm RM, Hearnden MN, Australian Society of Animal Production 26th Biennial Conference 2006.

4. Rast, L. Final report on Regional NSW Southern Slopes Surveillance project 2007. Zoetis data on file.

5. McCool CJ et al. Aust Vet J, 1988 65;153-156.

6. Zoetis Study Number B930R-AU-14-285 – Data on file.

Further Reading

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