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Preventing 
Reproductive Diseases

Cattle
Humans
Beef

PREVENTING REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES

Your herd, your financial investment and your livelihood could suffer significantly if diseases or parasites impact your herd. Disease prevention through annual vaccination is the key to stopping the spread of disease in your herd and reducing the potentially devastating impact of disease.

Annual vaccinations, parasite management and preventative programs maximise the health of your herd and your business.

The Zoetis vaccine and herd health ranges insure your herd and your enterprise against the economic impact of disease.

Impacts Cattle

Leptospirosis is a bacterium that infects both cattle and humans, affecting beef and dairy cattle.
It is spread via the urine and reproductive discharges of farm animals, wild-life, pigs and rats.
Leptospirosis can live in the environment for months, especially in stagnant water.
The disease infects cows and humans through contact with nose, eyes, mouth or broken skin.
Leptospirosis can affect the reproductive health of a heifer or cow by causing stillbirths, abortions and the birth of weak calves.

Impacts Humans

Leptospirosis can be spread from cows to humans, causing severe flu-like symptoms which may persist for weeks to months.
Leptospirosis is an occupational hazard for all people who work with cattle. Workplace Health and Safety (WH&S) regulations require that farmers provide a safe environment for their employees.

Ultravac®7in1

Ultravac®7in1 prevents leptospirosis and protects against the key clostridial diseases.

Ultravac7in1_Packaging

Only Ultravac 7in1 (2.5mL dose)

Stops the spread of leptospirosis - by preventing urinary shedding of leptospires when used prior to nature exposure
Protects you, your family, your workers and your herd
Keeps the unborn calf safe and sound from leptospirosis - through preventing urinary tract colonisation and placental and foetal infection
Can be used in calves from 4 weeks to provide early age protection

Protects against clostridial diseases:

Blackleg

Tetanus

Pulpy Kidney

Black Disease

Malignant Oedema
Ultravac 7in1 vaccine Other 7in1 vaccines
Prevents shedding in urine and from the reproductive tract when used prior to natural exposure No Claim
Prevents reproductive tract colonisation* No Claim
Prevents placental and foetal infection* No Claim
Calves can be vaccinated from 4 weeks* 4-6 months
Low volume 2.5 mL dose 4 mL
Can be used for up to 30 days after opening** 24 hours

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims

CLOSTRIDIAL DISEASES

The economic impact of clostridial diseases can be devastating. During outbreaks the losses can be dramatic and extensive.  Five common clostridial diseases can cause a heavy toll on your herd. Rapid death is the primary sign of clostridial diseases.

Clostridial disease What is it? How is it spread? What are the symptoms?
Blackleg
Clostridum chauvoel
Typically affects young, well grown cattle from 3 months to 2 years old. Bacteria are ingested from the pasture. Bruising stimulates growth of the organism and toxin production in muscle. Severe muscle damage, with inflammation, pain and gas accumulation in the tissues. Fever, weakness and death results.
Tetanus
Clostridium tetani
Tetanus organisums which produce a fatal toxin are found in soil and manure on most farms. Tetanus bacteria grow in wounds from: castration (including rings and banding), dehorning, nail punctures and calving trauma. Tetanus affects the nervous system. Stiffness and muscle spasms can be seen. The animal eventually collapses and respiratory failure leads to death.
Enterotoxemaia (Pulpy Kidney)
Clostridium perfringens type D
This bacterium normally exists in small numbers in the gut of heathly animals. Distrupted digestions, e.g. changing feed type to hig carbohydrate diet allows bacteria to multiply rapidly and produce toxin. Diarrhoea, bellowing, mania or dullness, blindness, convulsions and sudden death of animals otherwise considered to be in good condition.
Black Disease
Clostridium novyl
Grows and produces lethal toxins in damaged liver tissue. Damage to the liver by migrating liver fluke is the most common trigger for the disease. Livestock are often found dead with no evidence of clinical signs. In some cattle, lethargy and loss of appetite can be seen. Death occurs within 48 hours.
Mallgnant Oedema
Clostridium septicum
Organism are common in the soil on many farms. Bacteria from soil enter wounds including the navel of calves and produce fatal toxin. Swelling, inflammation and accumulation of gases. Gangrene occures as blood supply is compromised. Response to treatment is poor and death typically occurs within 24 hours.

Ultravac®5in1

Ultravac5in1_Packaging

Prevents the five common clostridial diseases in Australia
Utilises an Ultrafiltration process to create a lower volume vaccine that is less likely to produce lumps, is easily handled
Is easily recognised by the immune system to ensure rapid and effective protection
Safe for use at all stages of pregnancy
Calves can be vaccinated from 6 weeks
30 day broaching claim.

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims

PESTIVIRUS

Pestivirus, also known as Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), is a highly contagious virus present in herds across Australia. In fact, up to 90% of herds have evidence of past exposure to pestivirus1-3.

The costs and impact can be very significant:

MLA’s 2015 Report ranks pestivirus as the disease with the second biggest cost to the Australian beef cattle industry, costing $114 million annually10
Overall total production can be reduced by 25-50% in recently infected mobs or herds
Ongoing losses of 5-10% annually can occur where pestivirus persists6-9.

Pestivirus can enter a herd in many ways:

Once in the herd it can easily spread and has four (4) potential effects on the herd…

Entry of the virus can occur via:

  • ‘In, Out, and Over’
    • In – Cattle coming on to the property, including their foetuses. People coming on the farm, as well as their instruments and vehicles
    • Out - Cattle going off the property and returning pregnant at a later date. Or pregnant cattle going out and returning
    • Over (the fence) – contact with a neighbour’s cattle
  • Four (4) potential effects of the virus on the herd:
    • Early embryonic death and abortions
    • Production of PI calves – which carry and spread the virus for life before die
    • Delivery of unviable or abnormal calves at full term
    • Immune suppression increasing the risk of secondary infections
  • Pestivirus is often a component of other  common cattle disease problems (e.g. calf scours and pneumonia) as it can affect the immune system of infected animals
  • The disease is spread mainly by persistently infected cattle coming into close contact with susceptible cattle.

Pestigard®

Pestigard_Packaging

  • Only Pestigard is registered in Australia to prevent pestivirus. There are no other registered vaccines
  • Pestigard prevents nasal shedding of pestivirus to safeguard your heifers and cows reproductive potential
  • The time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose should not be less than 4 weeks. However the time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose can be extended to 6 months to enable the dosing to easily fit in with farm practices. 
Only Pestigard is registered in Australia to prevent pestivirus. There are no other registered vaccines
Pestigard prevents nasal shedding of pestivirus to safeguard your heifers and cows reproductive potential
The time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose should not be less than 4 weeks. However the time interval between the 1st and 2nd dose can be extended to 6 months to enable the dosing to easily fit in with farm practices.

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims

VIBRIOSIS

Vibriosis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterial infection. Bulls are responsible for the introduction and spread of bacteria in a herd, and infected bulls will not show any visible signs
Vibriosis is still a common infection in Australian beef and dairy herds and when introduced to a herd, the disease spreads rapidly as cows and heifers in such herds have no immunity
The disease is a major cause of infertility and abortion in cattle, and is easily prevented through vaccination of bulls.

Conception_Rates_Facts  

Vibrovax®

Vibrovax_Packaging

  • Only Vibrovax® is registered in Australia to prevent vibriosis in cattle. There are no other registered vaccines
  • Prevents transmission of vibriosis to safeguard your heifers’ and cows’ reproductive potential.

Vaccinating bulls annually with Vibrovax prevents vibriosis from spreading.

Vibrovax:

Significantly reduces the spread of vibriosis between infected females
May increases pregnancy rates and/or
Improve calving patterns resulting in less late calves in infected herds
Has no adverse impact on the testicular function and therefore semen morphology in vaccinated bulls5.

Vaccination of heifers and cows with Vibrovax may also be necessary to eradicate vibriosis from herds confirmed through testing to be infected.

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims

Parasites

One Powerful Product. Two Unique Models.

Dectomax® is the high performance drench for Australia’s leading cattle producers. The two unique models of Dectomax® Injectable and Dectomax® Pour-On give you two powerful choices to control the parasites that count, including the five major worms, lice, cattle tick and buffalo fly.^ Both Dectomax® Injectable and Pour-on have their unique benefits, but it’s the active doramectin that makes the difference. Its broad-spectrum efficacy and persistent days of activity against the key internal parasites provides protection for your cattle, which means fewer treatments, reduced pasture contamination and an improvement to your bottom line.

Dectomax® Injectable gets to the sites where it’s needed most in the highest concentrations.

It’s the active doramectin that makes the difference with Dectomax
Doramectin concentrates at high levels in areas where parasites can infect and cause damage in your cattle
The figure to the right compares Dectomax to other key drenches when given by injectio
Dectomax achieves higher concentrations at key sites than Ivomec and Cydectin 1% injections
The persistent activity of Dectomax means reliable worm control.

Dectomax has no adverse impact on dung beetle populations

The APVMA has concluded that there’s no evidence that any of the ‘mectin’ group of drenches has a long-term detrimental effect on dung beetle populations or dung disappearance rates in the field if used appropriately under Australian conditions6.

To control the parasites that count, including the five major worms, lice, cattle tick and buffalo fly^, you need a drench like Dectomax and you also need to protect your dung beetle population. By using an effective drench, like Dectomax, and encouraging dung beetles to thrive, you’ll optimise your herd’s health, reduce pasture contamination and maximise weight gain. The APVMA has stated that Dectomax® has no adverse effect on dung beetle populations.1,2

NOTE: Refer to product label for registered label claims

Dectomax_Injectable_Pour-On_Packaging

Downloads

For further information please refer to the following literature:

“Hard Working Protection for Cattle”

  Hard_Working_Protection_for_Cattle_PDF_FrontCover

 
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References:

1. Taylor LF, Hodge A, 2014. Descriptive findings from analysis of a large database of cattle worm egg count and larval culture results collected across Australia between 2002 and 2012. Vet. Parasitol. 204, 269–278.

2. Kloosterman et al., 1984. Negative interactions between Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves. Vet Parasitol. 15, 135–150.

3. Lanusse et al., 1997. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin in cattle. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 20, 91–99.

4. Lifschitz et al., 1999. Moxidectin in cattle: correlation between plasma and target tissues disposition. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 22, 266–273.

5. Lifschitz et al., 2000. Comparative distribution of ivermectin and doramectin to parasite location tissues in cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 87, 327–338.

6. NRA Special Review of Macrocyclic Lactones, May 1998.

^Buffalo fly claim for Dectomax® Pour-On only.

*Registered trademarks.

#Provides up to 14 days of persistent activity against Cooperia oncophora as per label claim.

§Provides up to 21 days of persistent activity against Cooperia oncophora as per label claim.

**Maximum number of days approved.

Further Reading

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