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Lambs are born with no exposure to disease antigens and are therefore very vulnerable to illness with sudden death. It is extremely important that lambs consume the maternal antibodies (Colostrum) through the first milk provided by the ewe within the first 24/48 hours after birth. These maternal antibodies only protect against recent disease vectors that the ewe has been recently exposed.
The lamb maternal antibody protection can be boosted through pre-lamb ewe vaccination against Clostridial diseases, Erysipelas arthritis and CLA. The length of protection is limited and unlikely to extend more than 6-10 weeks depending on disease type and the level of disease pressure.
It is vitally important to stimulate the lambs own immune system through protective vaccinations against the most prevalent and economically important diseases.
CHEESY GLAND - Caeseous LYMPHADENITIS (CLA)
This is a chronic disease characterised by the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes. Infection enters the flock by a carrier animal with shearing being the primary risk factor. Control relies on the elimination of the source of infection by culling all sheep with enlarged lymph nodes, preferably at shearing when palpation is easier. Using a 3in1 or 6in1 vaccine will reduce the number of sheep that develop abscesses.
Highly contagious bacteria that is spread via respiratory exhalation or transmission of ruptured fluids
CLA is a hidden disease affecting the major internal body organs and both the internal and external lymph nodes in sheep
The bacteria release a toxin, which damages the lymph node/organ and causes an abscess to form
Over time, the pus-filled abscess reorganises to form the characteristic Caseous abscess or “Cheesy Gland”
This is the inflammation of one or more joints which causes lameness and visible swelling of joints in the legs. Lambs will most likely become infected at mulesing when the lamb’s mother licks the wounds, at shearing via cuts, soon after birth or at marking. As an animal welfare consideration, animals that remain chronically lame should be humanely destroyed. The condition can be prevented by vaccinating ewes before lambing and avoiding shearing or mulesing lambs in wet and muddy conditions.
Erysipelas spp soil borne bacteria that enters via the umbilical cord or wounds then localises in leg joints causing inflammation and lameness
Results in death of young lambs through ill thrift and lame lambs
Increased tail in the flock, unsalable or untransportable animals and general animal welfare concerns
Causes carcass trimming and full condemnations at the abattoir
Economic impact of lower lamb numbers, chronic arthritis in ewes/rams, and lost meat yield
Ovine Johne's Disease
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
OJD is an incurable bacterial disease that infects intestines of sheep and goats, causing the intestinal walls to slowly thicken reducing absorption of nutrients
There is a production loss and reduced feed conversion efficiency from the initial infection leading to severe weight loss and death
OJD is widespread and expanding endemic disease
Lambs can contract OJD from when they start grazing and risk increases over time
The annual ewe death rate can be 2% on low prevalence farms and up to 30% on heavily infected farms5
This is a highly contagious viral disease that infects sheep through abrasions in the skin. This condition is particularly problematic in live export sheep where close confinement of animals and feeding of hard pellets and/or hay causes minor abrasions along the mouth and lips. The recommended program is to vaccinate each year’s drop of lambs. This can be done at marking and will provide protection for 12 months.
Scabby mouth is highly contagious
Scabs from infected sheep are major source of virus. Infection from environment/contact with infected sheep
Most commonly affects lambs in first year of life but also can occur in older sheep
Grazing of thistles, coarse pastures or stubbles may predispose to infection with Scabby Mouth as oral abrasions increase the potential for the virus to gain entry
Severely affected lambs unable to feed with loss of condition and depressed growth rates and market challenges
Selenium deficiency can be severe, resulting in white muscle disease or sub clinical symptoms, causing reduced productivity and low conception rates
Selenium deficient areas are found Australia wide
Selenium deficiency will be more pronounced as a result of rapidly growing, clover based pastures in high rainfall areas
Vital for energy production and body and wool growth
Rapidly-growing sheep have the highest demands
Levels of Vitamin B12 in sheep are dependent on ingestion of cobalt
Cobalt deficiency depends on soil type, but can also occur in rapidly growing pastures
ENTEROTOXAEMIA (Pulpy Kidney)
Clostridium perfringens type D
High levels of starchy foods or anything that causes gut movements to slow will predispose sheep to this condition. Death can occur within 2-3 hours. Exercise and additional roughage can help to prevent the disease.
Pulpy Kidney Disease is a naturally occurring bacteria that is found in the gut of healthy animals as well as in the soil and faeces Australia wide
Pulpy Kidney Disease is caused by a modification in the rumen conditions due to a sudden feed change, resulting in a rapid multiplication of these bacteria and production of the Epsilon toxin that is absorbed into the blood
Multiplication results in an overwhelming toxin level
Sudden death is the result
Predisposing factors to tetanus include: use of rubber rings for marking and shearing wounds. Signs appear 3-10 days after injury in lambs and present as body stiffness, muscular spasms, and protrusion of the third eyelid. Special attention needs to be given to hygiene at marking as well as pre-lambing boosters of clostridial vaccine.
Tetanus is a naturally occurring bacteria that is found in the soil, Australia wide
Tetanus spores enter the body via a wound due to husbandry procedures and accidental wounds
Tetanus bacteria produces a neurotoxin that causes prolonged muscle spasms, resulting in death due to the paralysis of the breathing muscles
Sudden death is the usual result
Clostridium novyi type B
Black Disease is a naturally occurring bacteria that is found in soil and gastrointestinal system, found Australia wide
Black Disease spores enter the body after ingestion, pass through gastrointestinal wall and deposits in liver and other tissues
Black Disease occurs when the liver is damaged, which provides ideal conditions for the spores to germinate, multiply, secrete toxin and produce signs of the disease
Liver fluke larvae are a common cause for the liver damage
Sudden death is the result
BlackLeg Disease is a naturally occurring bacteria that is found in soil Australia wide
The spore is ingested by animals whilst grazing, can live in the GIT or can enter the bloodstream then lie dormant in the muscle
Bruising, trauma or wounds triggers the spores to germinate, multiply, secrete toxin and produce signs of the disease
The toxins affect local tissues with death of tissue with gaseous, gangrenous presentation and toxic death of organ tissue
Sudden death is the usual result
Malignant Oedema is a naturally occurring bacteria that is found in soil Australia wide
Malignant Oedema spores enter the body from soil contamination of open wounds
These wounds can be caused by husbandry procedures and accidental wounds include the navel of lambs, head of fighting rams and marking wounds
The spores germinates in the wounds, multiply, secrete toxins and produces signs of the disease
Sudden death is the result
Goitre (iodine deficiency)
This presents as a swollen thyroid gland which causes visible swelling, as a result of a lack of iodine in the ewe’s diet. Prevention relies on managerial precautions such as avoiding grazing pregnant livestock on at risk areas. These include sandier soil types or lush pasture at low stocking densities. Iodine dosing of ewes in the fourth and fifth months of pregnancy is another option as it can prevent goitre in lambs.
Worm egg counts
Fresh faecal samples can be taken off the ground from a representative number of lambs (preferably 15 head) and submitted for faecal worm egg counts.
By doing faecal egg counts before and at day 14 after treatment with a drench, the efficacy of the treatment can be calculated (i.e. the percent of worms killed by the drench). Only drenches with high efficacy (>95%) should be used.
Conduct worm egg counts and drench ewes at 4-6 weeks prior to lambing if necessary
Do drench tests to check which drenches are effective against the target worms on your property
Conduct a worm egg count of the ewes at Marking, this may indicate the risk to the lambs and the drench choice at weaning